Mittwoch, 16. April 2014

THE CANARY HOTSPOT- volcano islands blog and forum- APRIL 16- 30- 2014

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 not to create the impression

CANARY ISLANDS- ISLAS CANARIAS- KANARISCHE INSELN


^background image by wikicommonsBerthold Werner/ TEIDE Volcano Caldera/ Teneriffe/Islas Canarias
BLOG/ Startseite

APRIL 16- 30- 2014


internal links > START HOME SOLAR BLOG VOLCANO WATCH VOLCANO MAPS external links > IGN AVCAN AVCAN/ fb. EMSC GVP NOAA






Activity report here will ony follow, if new events take place. For other environmental reports, please visit the solar and terrestrial blog on my homepage
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ACTIVITY REPORTS

April 27 2014:

Electron flux- as expected decreased after April 27 and  was knocked down late on April 29 by the high speed protons those had accumulated on a wider polar orbit after latest SEP on April 18, and those needed therefor 11 days to slown down so far to get on earth near orbits where they might  envolve their typical  effects in  the  coming days.
Due to the measured data, in the coming days, also the activity from the hot spot below El Hierro might significantly increase again with  new magma intrusion..

The Cabildo De El Hierro with AVCAN - so reports the el hierro blogspot- have meanwhile simulated the situation of an evacuation after a  possible larger  eruption from the elder crater (pico  viejo) not far from the  younger one which is in more than 3.700 meters above sealevel on Mount Teide The exercise dealed with lava flow and pyroclastic flows as expectable to occure generally from such a hot spot volcano system that would  affect then the  larger and densely populated Icod de los Vinos region and  the Oratava valley in the North of Tenerife , The imagined eruption in the exercise was set into the year 2024 , likely not to cause the impression such an eruption might be imminent now. During  last known larger eruption there - called the " guanche eruption"  in 1798, a large cloud of smoke darkened the islands for days and  major lava flow was reported running down afterwards from two fissures on the Northern flank of Mnt teide


english version of this side:

Association «Volcanes de Canarias»

The Spanish Association «Volcanes de Canarias» began to take shape in 2004 when a group of citizens created a forum within the portal www.todogeología.com for tracking seismic-volcanic activity that began in April 2004 on the island of Tenerife , Spain. Nowadays, Volcanes de Canarias is a national association with its own legal entity registered with the Goverment of Interior and Justicy. We collaborate with various agencies and institutions for the development of a number of objectives to inform and to improve the culture of volcanic activity and natural hazards centres that may affect the Islands and other regions of our country.

(SInce the activity began again in Late december 2013 , all data showed a major increase of related activities ( Tremors, heat signatures) with highest values on Teneriffe and Gran Canaria. Heat signature became strongest for all islands  first in the North of Mount Teide , and cralwed  then by and by crawled over the peak of mount Teide towards the Southern part but has it center still on the Northern half of Teneriffe.

HOWEVER: as  I have oftenly remarked in my blog here-, resp,  all these data show that an surface eruption might liekely occurre if then on Mounte Teide on Teneriffe, resp on its northern fragile flank..


Several first  magmatic quakes which were also the first from a  depth less than 11 km ( at around 7 km) occured then in March 2014 on the Northern flanc of Mt teide, that has the weakest structure of the volcano, since main parts of this Northern flanc had slipped into the sea in historical times.- Most interestingly - in the late 90th, during the first examaniation of the Canaries that was done  the recent decades- supported by the EU after Spain had joined the Union-    geologists  found  the  missing  large rock that broke off during that event  from  the Northern Crater in the Atlantic ,   more than 30 km Northwest of Teneriffe , however so far away from then island itself , that geologists have until today no official explanation whichh natural force might have carried that large rock ( with sides up to 500 meters long)so far away 

You  can also read an old essay I wrote after I returned from the Canaries in 1999 which was also one of  my first website attempts. I had translated the German version  with a website translator but have not revised or  corrected this article until today (no time) :

Atlantis the lost continent (. my theory )



April 27 2014:


First quake since more than 8 days. 

EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
127184326/04/201423:45:4827.7181-17.9896112.1mbLgNW EL PINAR.IHI[+]

This time again in just 11 km depth near El Pinar in the Southeast of the island :



 But in such a stretching zones, where continental plates drift apart from each other, creating trenches, but also caves and hollow spaces deep in the ground   these magmatic quakes might not by the only  indicator for a new  volcanic activity resp magmaintrusion ...

Volcanic activity increased on several volcanoes on April 24 such as Tungurahua and Reventador ( Peru). And allthough no quake was registered below El Hierro from APril 18 until APril 26 , tremor activity on all islands ( which became calmly after April 18) began to increase strongly also on April 24 on all islands includung El Hierro:
Here thre graphs of Gran Canaria showing this increase to values almost as high as during the peak of this activity phase in January 2014:

< Gran Can/ 20140423

< Gran Can/ 20140424


< Gran Can/ 20140427

< El Hierro/ 20140427

LATEST MODVOLC THERMAL ALERT IMAGE OF CANARY ISLANDS( April 27) 



^its difficult to see any changes on these thermal images- but I myself mean, that  especially Tenerife but also the other island are still slightly  getting warmer and warmer...

here the other image for Gran Can . There is no significant heat signature to see on the eastern islands Fuerteventuraand Lanzarote) :






update/ April 26 2014:

NO traces of protons yet those were emmited with a strong SEP on April 18. No increase in activity on the Canary hot spot yet . Quake activity below El Hierro came to a temporary stillstand on April 18 and no further quake was recorded since then.

HEAVY WEATHER WARNING FOR NORTHERN HEMISPHERE: ( Electron accumulation)

The Electrons flux  that was long time under strong pressure by newly incoming protons began to increase on April 23. > 10 MeV Electrons exceeded treshold of 1.000 pfu on April 25 after 13 UTC, and reached almost 10.000 pfu on April 26- at the time of this update.  This creates a high risk for strong thunderstorms and lightenings,  sudden tornadoes but also induced currents in power grids and likely also ( this is not proven yet) larger ships on high sea throughout the Northern hemisphere.



Polar temperature anomalies will also further increase in the coming days, with effects on the Atlantic  sea currents and the risk of an new latitudenal weather front where hot air from the South meets  cold air pumped from the northern pole southwards . Along this line strong heavy weathers might occure, while  regions South and north might suffer a longer drought period for the next weeks .

 For more  reports and daily updates, please visit the solar and terrestrial blog on my homepage

April 18- 20- 2014:


update/ April 18- 2014( :

Another major solar SEP associated to an M8 LED  flare and full halo CME ( coronal mass ejection) occured today ( 20140418) after 13 UTC from active solar region AR 12036 near to the Central solar meridian.



The resulting CME was therefore fully halo but was not much effective on its arrival two days later. The SEP which likely occured at 12:55 (= 24 minutes before the CME was unleashed) usually seems to accelerate protons almost to the speed of light (c)  As the  initial proton speed   is always highest radially to  the explosion center and  the active region ( 12036) that produced this SEP, was near to the Central solar meridian,  first protons arrived on Earth  just  about 10 minutes later ( I have no exact minute data)with almost the speed of light! Those fast protons are attrackted by the massive Earth body similar to a magnet but were in this SEP  first  too fast , thus they likely shift  frist onto a wide polar orbit around the Earth , where they - as there is almost no  friction- just slowly will loose their cinetic energy until to get in contact  with the Earth magnetic field on which they move and orbit then  through the Earth`core where their cinetic energy is then transformed by friction into heat  within the Earth mantle. Hot spot activity worldwide should therefor be expected  near the main proton impact longitudes ( see/click for : GOES/ protons) and  will - after a phase of tranquillity- by and by  increase later and likely not before April 25 or later.

remark to that: ( its difficult to identify the SEP event on sat images , as the SEP occures in deeper layers of the solar corona. Most experts even from NOAA or ESA however associate the proton event with the flare and CME thus protons would this toime have reached a speed higher than " c" as protons impacted earlier than the CME became visible on satellite imagery! But: that any particle can reach a speed higher than the speed of light (c) is - due to physicals law not regarded as possible ??!))

First proton impacted onto the geomagnetic field soon after 13 UTC ( see GOES plot below)  on the related longitudes from about 15 ° West west of Europe and first hit also the CANARY Islands.

<  Integral proton flux/ April 16- 18- 2014

As the event took place near the central me solar meridian, the earth came into  a high speed stream of solar accelerated protons, thos initially impacted with a speed near the speed of light (c). As these high speed protons would move a longer time on a wide orbit around the earts geomagnetic field , they will get in friction  with the earth atmosphere and body rather lately , what indicates, that the real heat effects of this SEP will set in this  rather lately (about  from March 25- 27 on- maybe even  some days later ) after a period of tranquillity. 
This gives me time to tell about what I observed with at least 50 SEPs I compared since 2012 by measured data and by comparing the visible events and their  coincident effects:


(draft) Most interestingly, these protons - as now first time observed seemed - due to the heating effects as displayed on the  NASA D- Rap thermal  image below - to  impact not on the Southern pole as usually , but on the Northern Pole 
This might be   for some  an indicator for a " magnetic flip", an rather curious phenomenon that was already repeatedly expected by experts to happen on the sun and at the same time on the earth magnetic field since decades.  
Why has the Earth magnetic field a Southern and Northern pole like a magnet?
 The polarity within the geomagnetic field is not created by the existence of  free electrons alone  but -similar to a dynamo-  by the Earth`s own rotation . So- usually,  the "negative pole",  where  the electrons accumulate  is in the South and the gravity pole in the North  and it would not be a big thing or need  much, if that polarity would really flip or  shift regularly from South to North .This  might be caused # so i could believe- just by a minor shifts of the gravity centrer on the Sun to the South or North , as the sun has -differently to the Earth not a fixed gravity center  a rather dynamic gravitional center and field 

Protons have numerous effects when entering the earth magnetic field an geosphere

Protons are rather not energetc or antienergetic particles. Antienergetic in the context to energy  to stands here for gravity . The only known "potential" energy they posess as any other particle moving through the universe results from the acceleration  all protons received by the big bang at the begin of time .

WHAT IS AN SEP ( also called SAP or SPE) ? 
The solar event,  the socalled SEP (solar energetic particles) SAP( Solar accelerated protons) or SPE ( solar proton event) is barely explored . 

Out of at least 50 minor and major  SEPs I observed during the past 2 years , I call SEP "the invisible eruption" that cannot be really observed but they seem to  trigger an sometimes ( if the evnt takes place near to the solar surface) visible specific type of surface eruptions which looks very similar to a large hydrogen bombs that explodes underground Sometimes the explosion occurs deeper with the solar hull that no surface event can be seen and protons can just be  measured  by satellites such as ACE or GOES
 . SEP are typically occur in ( an are therefor related to)  active solar region with larger sun spots . As I believe by own observation, they are even by  scientists  rather confused with solar flares and CMEs , those happen mostly almost simultanously but are rather triggered by the SEP and not opposite. Some SEPs trigger high secondary activities hose can last for days  such as shockwaves running over th surface and  major flares and sometimes an entire cluster of multiple CMEs unleashed in their aftermath.

NO OFFICIAL THEORY about SEPs
As I believe SEPs are larger or elder  sun spots , thos sink at any time deeper into the Suns gaz hull until they reach layers with so strong magnetic forces that they are torn apart into their single particles - obvioulsy only protons , sun psots most likely may consist of (what explains that they behave like black holes k, that no light can penetrate a sun spot as this mass of protons is so dense any heavy that it even cannot absorb any energy)


PROTON IMPACTS

what is known is, that these solar protons if they hit the geomagnetic field fully impact by their positive charge ( in real only gravity) . However- as subatomar particles they only can aasociate to their counterparts. the electrons and move therefor along the longitudenal geomagnetic field lines towards the usually negtiav charged Southern pole . This is known and can be find also in wikipedia)

How these protons actually behave then is not explored resp cannot be really explored  entirely yet.  Most likely, as it can be considered by observation of the effects,  protons from low speed SEPs  ( with velocities around 20.000- 80.000 km/s) move to the Southern pole along the geomagnetic field lines and axis through the earth on an polar orbit around the earth and through the Earth body., whiole they transform their coinetic energy into friction and heat.

HOW DO THESE PROTONS LIKELY  BEHAVE WITHIN THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD?

 High speed protons first seem not to have any effects at all, , what raised my theory , that these  high speed protons might first move on a wider polar orbit around the Earth even beyond the edge of the geomagnetic field, with a closest  approach  on the Southern and secondary the Northern Pole.  Thus they cause  first - and as again observed with this recent SEP  only friction there , while it takes a certain time  to slow down and get in friction with the Earth geomagnetic field, atmosphere and Earth boday. Most likely,after these protons have  slown down to an subcritical speed by any by during this friction process , they "end up" within the earth body and core where they integrate in existing atoms  or form Neutrons with the later atrrackted electrons if these as well reach a subcritical speed and discharge inot the Earth body.  In Fact protons  impacting with SEPs "only "cause heat effects. Their total energy however must be imagined in solar dimensions .

 Sure is also that all protons impacting with solar SEPs  with a while approach by their gravity (depending on their  speed ) the earth , wehere they move along with the electrons on the geomagnetic field lines on polar/ longitudenal orbits those lead through the Earth axis an core or mantle.

As mentioned already above- if solar accelerated protons have such a high speed as the SEP from April 18 2014, these protons would first  rather  move on an orbit in a higher distance around the earth similar as a satellite , until they are slow enough to integrate into the geomagnetic field , to get in friction with , and to slow down significantly.This probably  explains why the effects of extreme fast SEP protons take place lately with an delay of about 1 week and more.

SEP/ PHASE II. ELECTRON ACCUMULATION:

the second phase hat sets in when the initial proton  storm eases, is that the Earth now neeeds an equivalent amount of electrons ( it that  just attrackts energetic electrons from the solar magnetic field ) to restore  the "particle neutrality " resp top form finally electron/ proton pairs resp Neutrons . This is a fundamental universal law , as protons and electron even cannot really sperate( nor be  be seperated form another permanently  .If  there would not be that equivalence of protons and electrons throughout the universe, , all matter would be instable and either collapse or explode.

The Max Planck Institut in Munich/ Germany  describes that procvess as a "short circuit "between the Earth geomagnetic field and the solar magnetic field, by which the earth axis temporarely would " heat up like a stove" (unfortunately iIhave not found this online article again so I could  post it here. 

While solar protons effect mainly on and through the Southern geopole, these electrons aatrackted after the proton event  so far its is known . accmulate above the Northern geopole. Compared evenst whos that this electron accumulation after one SEP would last about 3- 4 weeks . after that time normally  these highe energetic solar electrons would significantly slow down  with a final collapse  and discharge. During this period these electrons have many effects such as strong thunderstorms and tornadoes, they induce high currrents into power grids and- as  recent ship tragedies indicate  likely also ships on high sea.  They also and that mainly on the Northern hemisphere lead to longer heat  periods with possibly droughts 

SEP phase III:
If the energy  in these solar electrons is comsumed,  resp has transformed into heat it comes to as kind of collapse , which is also the inmdicator when the affected tectonic plates are cooling down . This last phase is again accomponied by strong earthquakes ., those occure, as these tectonic plates when  heated up by the protons impact,   expand and become morer soft , while the contract again  and harden when they again are cooling down . THIS THEN CAUSES FRICTION ON PLATE BOUNDARIES THOSE CAN RESULT IN CATASTROPHIC EARTHQUAKE EVENTS:

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The current situation however is much more weird . Multiple SEPs following one another ( as it is the case now since at leat 4-6 month) can accumulate within th earth.  Also still lot of compressed latent electrons have accumulated around the Northern pole from the many previous SEPs those might have had interactivities with the first high speed incoming protons when these impacted just some minutes after the solar SEP happend ( likely at the time when the so called 10 cm Radio burst , which is often or typically associated to  such an SEPs event- occured  on April 18 at 12: 55 ) First protons however reached the Earth just minutes later .



the DRAP graph on 20140419 shows that this theory seems to be correct as heating up effects now are also  increasing around the Southern Pole- as usual during proton impacts:


NASA/ DRAP-  impacting high speed protons soon after the SEP event on 20140418 first as usually moved to the Southern  the pole and began from there ( as it is assumed) to circulate through  the  earthbody ,. But similar to a very fast shot just makes a hole into anything but is too fast  to transform much of its cinetic energy , these high speed protons ( wiith a speed near to the speed of light!)when entering the earth magnatic field  caused not much friction yet inside the earth body but did so when they moved out again first time again through  the Northern pole ( image above) . But soon or after some circulations  ( image below from 20140419 ) these Proton were already slow enough also to heat up the Southern pole



. Analog to that , the heat within the earth mantle created by friction of the circulating protons will therefore also only slowly increase in the coming days , but the heat created by transformation of acceleration into friction in the mantle magma will steadily increase until it reaches a point when new  magma intrusions likely will beging and increase from numerous worldwide  HOT SPOTS into the Earth crust!

New major actvities especially also on the Canaries  should be expected to rise slowly during the coming week until new magma intrusion might result  after appr 5- 7 days .

The CME associated to this event might reach the Earth on April 20. Find full report and updates in my solar and terrestrial blog


APRIL 18- 2014:

Two more quakes on April 17 and one on April 18 at time of this update. All three  from the same yet lowest  depths between 10 and 14 km , to which the magma maximal surges up since  the last two activity periods:



EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
127017818/04/201402:47:3727.7434-18.0926121.5mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
127007117/04/201407:12:1427.7518-18.2876131.9mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
127003717/04/201405:09:1427.7174-18.0496121.8mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]

localisation of the latest quake on April 18- 2014:


What causes these quakes?

Those "volcanic or magmatic quakes" occure, because new magma surging up from the earth mantle has to break free any path through  barriers of magma deposits from  former activities, that has  already cooled down and hardened  out . So called "harmonic tremors" ( see below)  are rather caused by heat effects and by gases such as steam. rising up from fresh  and still hot magma. 

EL HIERRO-the newest shield volcano on the archipelago:

(draft) What is known for sure is, that El Hierro is the latest shield volcano,  the Canary hot spot has created above while the Earthcrust there obviously has moved  in historical times into different directions and not only into northnorthwestern direction as it is the case on the Hawaiian hot spot . El Hierro is therfore a shield volcano "in the making" and its interestingly not growing in seize by surface eruptions but by a liftup process caused by the sheer unbelievable gravitional expansion forces those envolve in  magma , if it rises up all the way from the Earth mantle (what it does not all the time but rather seldom and just within larger periods of time ). Thus this built up process might still go on for thousands of years without anything becomes visible  on the surface . On the other side , the last shield volcano construction Northwest of the islands must have collapsed after an surface eruption  in historical time leaving the valley del Golfo behind.
One of the real risk in such volcanoes is  rather the formation of highly explosive gases such as hydrogen or hydrogensulfate, when magma forms a bubble in lower depths  where it finds water ( that just can`t  exist in the depth of 10 km and more of a mantle plume)

This can turn shield volcanoes into  a bomb, as it was the case in the "Minoan explosion "of the islands of Thera/ Santorin sometimes around 1.500 B.C. However no deads were found there as such an event would have a certain prelude with steam memissions tremors and increasing temperatures on the surface, those can be even much better predicted by modern science. ( however- depending on whether the volcanologists charged with not turn a blind eye to.)


^Thera: The Minoan explosion around 1.500. B.C has just left a small sickel of the formerly roound shaped island

The canary hot spot  islands is not the only active one at the moment : Also the Iceland hot spot, the Santorin hot spot,  the afar hot spot the ASU hot spot /Japan and others  have experience new magma intrusions in recent times.


HOW DANGEROUS ARE SUPERVOLCANOES  REALLY TODAY?


The large volcanic structures, resp its remnants the calderas  those are found along with the most hot spots on Earth, also called supervolcanoes, however were formed and were so active in earlier periods of Earth history, when the mantle and crust was still much hotter than today, The question all around the supervolcanoes , even science cannot answer now is not " to be or not to be" but rather how dangerous they really are. HOW ACTIVE can those hot spot volcanoes real become today

TREMOR ACTIVITY


decreased further on all islands  and is now on the lowest point since the new activity began in December 2013. Possibly most of the first magma has cooled down now and hardens out now. A new activity would therfore necessarely have to be strong enough to melt this resservoir again to cause a larger eruption on the surface . Otherwise magma during the next  activity phase might melt and find new but  only small channels to the surface - as it did in 2011  what only can cause minor eruptions:

But- interestingly- the graphs of April 17 has not been completed and  records stopped - same on la Gomera  - out of an unknown and only thinkable  reason- already after 4 ( resp 1) UTC. As  also experts , from those the most found the values extraordinary high for a volcano claimed- the seismometers - had been already  regularly turned of in the past, if values were climbing too high , that people became afraid to visit or further to stay on the islands. That is understandable, as the most might not understand that , while any other volcano in a subduction zone showing those tremors might erupt soon such an activity especially in a caldera  such as the Canary island sit on-   would not pose any danger so soon  and can go on for a long time and even stop again then for thousands of years without anything happened on the surface. A caldera is nothing else than a pile of lose debris material left when  a volcano crater has first piled up, but than collapsed when its magma chamber emptied during an eruption

The most real  risk is, that such a  large mantle plume  might after certain periods of time ( or when the earthcrust  has shifted to a new position above the hot spot) again  create a new magma chamber or bubble below the islands, which than finally breaks through the earth crust with a major rather supervolcanic type eruption and collapses to a caldera again afterwards.  This  is also rather unlikely , but believed to be  also the possible future scenario and behaviour of the Yellowstone hot spot, which is the best explored in the world.( the Yellowstone caldera - by the way is also more active now  and emits more steam and gases than usually.  But experts expect no  major yet or now )


< La Gomera/  20140417

(Both graphs were copied from the iGN website one day later- today on April 18)




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April 16- 17- 2014:

activity continued on April 16 and 17 from different depths: 

EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
127002417/04/201402:28:4227.7412-18.2918183.3mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
126993916/04/201417:23:4627.7406-18.0169121.7mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
126993816/04/201416:26:1527.7248-17.9134201.6mbLgE EL PINAR.IHI[+]
126984516/04/201408:51:1027.7140-18.0390111.5mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI


The latest quake on April 7 occured about 10 km offshore Sabinosa which is situated on  the southwestern part of the island (el Golfo valley). The quake  reached magnitude 3.3


M 3.3 - CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN REGION - 2014-04-17 02:28:42 UTC



report by EMSC ( the EMSC lists  earthquakes within Europe those exceed magnitude M 2.0 and earthquake worldwide those exceed magnitude 4)

TREMORS

are currently very weak and decreased on all islands including Gran Canaria: Deformation data show now further lifting process since the last magma boost several weeks ago.
< GranCan/ 20140417





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useful links/ nützliche Links:
EMSC
Global Volcanism Program
Facebook Seite der AVCAN
IGN (Spain) Serie El Hierro
Volcano-discovery.com
Earthquake- report. com
MEDIEN:
KARTEN:
SOLAR (SAT)
SOLAR (info)

REAL TIME FEATURES:
(click on the images to enlarge them)

letztes Beben(Kanarische Inseln ( IGN)



Bebenmap( El Hierro)


GPS deformation measure stations on El Hierro

MODVOLC/ Hawaii  thermal alerts:


^
near real time thermal alert
for El Hierro, la Palma, Teneriffe and la Gomera ( updated once per week)

volcano discovery. com : Earthquake within 30 km radius around El Hierro:


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previous posts those contain articles about the Canary volcanism in general: 


February 10- 16- 2014

 January 15- 19- 2014

January 20- 27- 2014




Mnt Teide ( Teneriffe)

related free online sources:


VOLCANOES:

"Eruptions that shook the world"

a very interesting and freely avaible  source how volcanoes work where you find all what you want to know about volcanoes

Sources of the volcanic activity at El Hierro ( since 2011):

Some may like to read a review on the volcanic activity below El Hierro in 2011:
Here is a data based report  by earthquake .com- an excellent site regularly reporting (what you never get in the news) about Earthquakes and related volcanism

worldnews.com: Special environmental reports about the Canaries 

Miscanellous:
 Geschichte Teneriffas (deutsch)





 Fataga ( Gran Canaria)



 San Cristóbal de La Laguna in 1880 (Tenerife)




Caldera de Taburiente National Park (La Palma).




Garajonay (La Gomera)




   (BBC/ 20111204)Canary Island volcano: A new island in the making?

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