Sonntag, 2. November 2014

THE CANARY HOTSPOT- volcano islands blog and forum- NOVEMBER 01- 30 - 2014

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CANARY ISLANDS- ISLAS CANARIAS- KANARISCHE INSELN


^background image by wikicommonsBerthold Werner/ TEIDE Volcano Caldera/ Teneriffe/Islas Canarias
BLOG/ Startseite

ACTIVITY/ NOVEMBER   01- 30 2014 


internal links > START HOME SOLAR BLOG VOLCANO WATCH VOLCANO MAPS external links > IGN AVCAN AVCAN/ fb. EMSC GVP NOAA






Activity report here will ony follow, if new events take place. For other environmental reports, please visit the solar and terrestrial blog on my homepage
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ACTIVITY REPORTS-  NOVEMBER   01- 30 2014 


update : NOVEMBER 30 2014:


The strong  harmonic tremor signals those were measured during the past week, decreased on November 30 on all islands. The new increase  was likely related to a minor magma boost  form the hot spot and mantle plume indicated by two magmatic quakes two days before on November 27 and 29 . 

EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130842029/11/201410:34:1427.7057-18.0168112.4mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130829727/11/201416:29:2127.7393-18.0482131.5mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]


The  strong "tremor reaction " now on these magma boosts those follow one another with a rate  of about two minor quakes all two days since the latter half of 2014 , shows that the amount of magma is now pretty high and / or CLOSE to the surface. The depth of the quake however remains still in an average  of 10 km ( more or less), This would mean then that rather the amount of magma accumulated with the old cadera area is high. 
The question is: where does it run to?

Could it really be that magma from the Canary hot spot  runs deep down in any type of fissure faults or old channel about 1000 km to the Southernmost islands of the capeverdes to erupt there? It was even discussed by experts, that tha Canary hotspot might feet volcanoes in more than 1000 km distance in Afruca!  However- there is no instrument yet available by which we could get an insight  or examine the bowels of such  volcano system, those  are situated in a depth of  5- 10 km and more  below surface...


update FOGO volcano/ Cap verdes. The strong lava flow has slown down but still  continues . Until November 30. the lave flow has destroyed avillage of  and avisitors center: ( images and further informations here at facebook.com/ Kapverden)






here the last video:



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update : NOVEMBER 28 2014:

FOGO Island:

FUGO Island: No further news yesterday and today on the facebook page  the Cape verde islands. The images ( below) taken on Nov 27 in the morning and afternoon  indicate,   that  the lava flow that  followed the  first eruption has slown down in the latter half  November 27. But I have no further informations yet. and also I have no infdpormation whether there is a submarine eruption near to  the smaller island in  the Southwest. The lava flow might be very intensive there. I hope it has not disconncted cable connections form the islands yet.
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CANARY Islands

The intensity of seismic tremors  had began sharply to drop on all Canary islands on  the same day when the eruption of Mnt .Fogo had begun on NOv 23. . On November 26, these intensive tremors on all Canary islands began already to resume  and as I mean - critically increased on all Canary islands- including  La Palma and are today- Nov 28- so far a I can judge that - again on that highest level since the activity began again on December 26- 2013 .

No  doubth- that means of course NOTHING GOOD. The Magma in between the islands  is likely  very hot,  resp.  came much  closer to the surface during the past week . It  just needs any contact with sea  water to create  an explosive event, but the sediments around the Canaries seem to have sealed the old  caldera pretty well ( at least against the sea ) So long as this holds- ( might be different after stronger quakes  would occure) NO  further pressure can built up.

Tremors are very high and I would be very careful now on all the islands on and near ton the Canaries. Tremors are now - on NOve 28- highest on La Gomera:

< La Gomera/ 20141128

< El Hierro/ 20141128

> La Palma/ 20141128
< Tenerife/ 20141128

< Ferteventuras/ 20141128









EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130829727/11/201416:29:2127.7393-18.0482131.5mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]



------------------

update : NOVEMBER 24- 27 2014:


Development of the eruption on Mont Fogo (island)-  cape verdes islands: 

the video by green TV i posted yesterday already has shown that lava also comes up through the flat / ground around the volcano peak. Now there is a lava flow, that - as I would assume will not stop so soon. I would not expect many more explosive events there:



But  happens more there , than meets the eye:

MODIS thermal alerts show the heat signature of another - but subsea eruption in the NNWof  the smaller island SW of FOGO:

here the thermal  image for FOGO and the aneiboured islands , downladed on 20141127:

The two little red spots you see on this thermal image NNW near to the smaller island SW of FOGO are most likely the heat signature of another  coincident  second- but yet undetected subsea-  eruption . that seems  - by the intensity  of the  red colorisation- to  be even stronger than the one on Fogo itself  


To follow the actual state of the eruption , here the real time image implemented from the MODVOLC website:



I THINK WE CAN ALREADY CONGRATULATE PORTUGAL!

They might get a new island soon! Fogo is giving birth to a new island!  Fogos doughter!  As you  know- the island that was expected to arise  with the first activity of the El Hierro hotspot- in the South of El Hierro  in 2011 just  stopped shortly before it was lurking out of the sea . Will this sub sea eruption near to Fogop make it up to the surface?


  Its just a volcanic island and no volcano on earth-. as it seems- ever really dies , they only sleep for a while, and wake up then at any time again . Sometimes volcanoes can have dangerous eruptions, dangergous in the sense, if people are living too close to it. its very seldom that a volcano explodes ( such as Santorini did 1.500 B.C . Fogo is no supervolcano ( the canaries of course as i believe once have been a sv). And that a supervolcano erupts by bouyoncy forces ion the accumulated magma is still possible, but  rather happened in earlier earth ages when the Earth mantle was still hotter than today. And most former supervolcanioes on Earth are calderas , those cannot built up pressure anymore in the stae they currently are!
The last known supervolcano eruption however happened on the Eiffel volcano field in germany about 11.500 B.C.) with an explosive eventlot of black smoke and a typical. lave flow  on a wider scale.

But fogo is not a hot spot (shield) volcano but a secondary stratovolcano in a spreading zone where volcanoes behave differently... We should see ( resp I see it so ) volcanoes rather as positive as volcanoes create new land those with a while b turn into  the most wonderful landscapes . They bring up mineral ressources and even gold  and espoecially supervolcanoes have created  entire ökosystems on Earth  ( such as La Gomera, La Palma Sicil or Kreta just to name some of them  where the volcanic heat in the ground steadily heats up seawater to steam that comes out then as sweet water through fountains high in the montains form where it  supplies these islands with water . without volcanis these islands would  biologically probably be  dead) . Earth could not renew and recover itself without volcanism ( compare:; Venus) ) 


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NOVEMBER 23- 30- 2014:


update on Mount Fogo eruption / cap verde islands:


On November 24, the eruption of Mount Fogo  has obviously still  increased in strength. On November 23, the volcano first erupted on just one site from pico pequeno - obviously a minor crater on the  Southern flanc shooting out a minor cloud of hot smoke- -maybe a pyroclastic one , followed by a steady lava fountain . Soon,  hot lava- so the local report-  destroyed the cable connection of the webcam and the image below is just the last one that was received .

On November 24, the eruption was increasing with  several  lava fountains visible now on the  peak itself  but with  lava also surging up now through the surface around the volcano peak .  As you can see in the video coverage below - made by green TV- the volcano also spews stones ( tephra)  and  more and more  smoke and  steam  fills the valleys and region  around: Great video!  A MUST SEE!






for comparation: a video made during the first stage  of  the last eruption ( also from pico pequeno crater). in  April 1995 ( activity ended end of May 1995)


  




Mount FOGO eruption connected to the magma intrusion through theEl Hierro hot spot ?

however- since the eruption began, tremor signals on the canaries - those had reached  a new peak especially below El Hierro until November 23 began sharply to decrease on November 24 and are on all islands on  a very low intensity today- November 26. First time since begin of this 3 activity phase on Dec 26- 2013 also there was no further magmatic quake measured below El Hierro for now more than  10 days since the last two magmatic quakes had been registered from  12 km depth on Nov 15. This does not mean that the magma intrusion is over now . But  very likely the magma that has more and more accumulated within the old caldera  between the Canary Islands could not finally penetrate the thick layers of sediments there and has found a way out now  on  the cap verde islands through a mabye yet existing channel...


^^^ tremors on El Hierro (<)  and La Gomera (>) on 20141123

and on 20141126:



-------------------------

NOVEMBER 11- 23- 2014:




EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130650615/11/201415:47:2027.7506-18.0033141.7mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130649715/11/201409:40:5527.7786-18.3097172.0mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130631014/11/201402:53:5027.7088-18.0219131.7mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130630714/11/201402:37:4527.7114-18.0119112.3mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130604612/11/201421:20:2428.6175-18.0968331.9mbLgATLÁNTICO-CANARIAS[+]





activity on the Canaries rose only shortly and very slightly following the short proton storm  on November 01- 03 ( see data and report below on this page) and magma intrusion  is again almost quiet since November 15.  Tremors those indicate the activity of hot magma  below the islands- however-  rose to a new peak level until 20141124 - showoing probably one of the highest values observed since begin of the new activity phase in late December 2014. This very likely  indicates also,  that magma, is eithger very hot or already close to the surface. last quakes on Nov 15 however indicate the  depth between 10- 15 remained the same.

 On November 25 the tremors signals lost in intensity :

Tremor signals on 20141124:
< El Hierro



< La Gomera

< Gran Canaria 
- values are also very high on Lanzerote and Fuerteventura


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ERUPTION OF MONT FOGO/ an volcano at the coast of Cap Verde islands:

The cape verde islands are not far South from the Canaries. Magmatic quakes have increased in the recent years and month on the most faults within the atlantic ( which is a continental spreading zone , where magma intrusion can become every intensive) and the invcredible expansion forces in the uprising magma effected just recently ( NOv 23 2014)again  as an intensive quake swarms onto the Virgin islands likely by widening the atlantic ridge. ( the boundary to the Carribean plate) This development that continues since years but intensified again in early 2014 made the suspicion, that the magmatic intrusion occures ( even on a global scale) but also on a much larger area within the atlantic and around the Canaries hot spot than any time before as than previously thought and believed . One question was also whether the instrusion might trigger on nearby features instead as those are the volcanic featureson th Azores.
 Now - rather surprisingly- a volcano began to erupt  on the cap verde atoll which is as the Azores atoll anyway also connected with the Canary islands. All three island groups are part of a long stretched offshore formation along the west coast of Africa. Both volcano systems might be connected. Hot spots and their mantle plume can feed  a  wideranging  system  subvolcanoes connected by channels  in the Earth crust .

 Also  in Italy - as  local told me-  Etna on Sicil is connectect by channels in the Earth crust to Stromboli and the other volcanic features on the  Aeolian islands. As Etna emmits hot fluid a gasless lava , Etna  - itself situated in a subduction zone- is believed to be connected to  an hot spot. Further north of Sicil and the Aeolian islands we find another volcanic island group with Ischia and Capri as the bestknown ones-  It lies before the coast of Naples with its large mount Vesuvius in its back . Nearby to Naples are the campi fleeigri which likely is  the related hot spot that  feeds all these  volcanoes from Vesuvius near Naples down to Etna on Sicil  Campi fleeigri itself  is  today  the caldera of a former supervolcano . The activity in the Caldera  is used today  to produce geothermal energy.

Mount Fogo live webcam:

http://capeverde.com/webcam/fogo/fogo-pico-webcam.jpg

>>NOTICE by webcam owner: Because of the volcano eruption today, the Internet connection to our webcam has been destroyed by the lava. Here you see the last received image from the eruption today.




The recent eruption of the Pico do Fogo continues to produce lava fountains from two vents on the volcano's flank. The erupted lava collects in rapidly growing flows that destroy roads and houses near the caldera, as shown in the new BBC footage below. Fortunately, this new eruption has not yet made any casualties, but many locals are forced to abandon there homes and move to houses constructed for the refugees of the 1995 eruption or to newly constructed temporary shelter. A large ash plume can be seen from Praia, the capital of Cape Verde on one of the neighbouring islands. The eruption also caused the closure of the local airport. ...read more...




(BBC/ 20141125) Cape Verde residents evacuated as Pico do Fogo volcano erupts

A volcano has erupted in the Cape Verde islands, causing hundreds of residents living in the vicinity to be evacuated and a local airport to be closed. A large plume of smoke was seen rising over the Pico do Fogo volcano, starting on Sunday. It is the first time the volcano on the island of Fogo has erupted since 1995.The Cape Verde government said civil protection workers and military were being sent to Fogo to help. There have been no reports of casualties. Officials said the signs were that the eruption was bigger than the last one, 19 years ago....read more...



STRONGER ELECTRON ACCUMULATION ABOVE THE NORTH POLAR REGION: 


Until  November 15. protons were still active within the geomagnetic field area. On November 17. the electron accumulation following each proton event ( SEP) became the dominant particle effect and will still be active for the next 1- 3 weeks, until (SO FAR AS NO FURTHER SEP OCCURS what just would switch the effects back to phase I) their final discharge ( proton electron reaction to neutrons) ends the latest SEP effects.
WARNING: This short third SEP phase likely will be accomponied by major subduction quakes with magnitudes those can reach M 8 or even M 9 and more and are ( due to my collected data ) expectable in the region of the EASTERN PACIFIC and AMERICA WESTCOAST, including the Southamerican one.
But now electrons are active and > 10 MeV Electron flux  rose up to almost  10.000 pfu. on November 17 and fluctuates since then between values of 100 and 10.000 pfu.


image 1:rise of integral electron flux after November 17- 2014:



image 2:

CURRENT (REAL TIME) ELECTRON FLUX ( GOES):




this current electron accumulation  leads typically to strong tornadoes and thunderstorms with  extraordinary strong lightenings . The strongest effects the high energetic electrons the earth attrackts after  the proton impact (SEP)  from the solar magnetic field always do have and those persist ( after a single SEP event!!) then continously over 2- 3 weeks are heating effects around the Northern pole, what interrupts resp slows down  the heat exchange through the seawater and creates hot atmospheric  streams from the equatorial regions and cold air streams escaping from the Northern pole . 
At all  a kind a paradox but only  temporary climate with strong rainfalls along the lines , where the two different streams meet each other a. Those rainfalls  caused by the latest SEP are already observable since about one week ( when the electron phase ii set in) as typical  in the regions of Italy and Spain as well as in the Northern parts of the USA.
Especially on the Canaries  this  temporary disturbance of the Gulf stream  that can be observed after each SEP usually  leads - as reported data evaluated after previous SEPs show-  to a rough sea with higher waves, stronger  winds as usual an ( especially in the summer) to higher temperatures than usual , those sometimes yet exceeded  40° Celsius 

If the > 10 Me V electron flux ( used as indicator) rises further to values above 10.000 pfu other effects ar possible such as induced currents, those can accumulate in satellites ( the overload can even make them dead for a while) down to the ground to ships on high sea, in electric overland grids ( where they can lead to overvoltages and transformer fires) or pipelines.

I was  observing and evaluating each solar SEP since 2012 and try to provide regular update in time on my website: 

solar and terrestrial blog



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NOVEMBER 10- 2014:

,
activity below El Hierro went on on low pace.

EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130552210/11/201415:06:4927.7335-18.0123111.6mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130542510/11/201404:39:2727.7126-18.0446131.5mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130541109/11/201421:10:2427.6924-18.0241121.9mbLgSW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130530308/11/201406:04:2827.6885-18.35271.5mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130513907/11/201405:38:2727.7004-18.0249121.6mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130480804/11/201408:53:3928.0744-16.0324322.1mbLgATLÁNTICO-CANARIAS[+]

hotspot activity and magma intrusion has increased after the solar SEP on 20141101-  so far as registered on Hawaii,  along the San Andreas fault,  below  Iceland as well as  on numerous  tectonic faults such the North Indian ridge and the Atlantic ridge. Meanwhile - one week later,  the activity - the magma intrusion from the hot spot and earth mantle as such is already decreasing, while  the updwellling magma is still active  and expands. The intensified lava flow from Kilauea volcano for example that came to a stillstand end of October resumed and still continues  its movement towards resident areas since  the first week of November. The intense earthquake swarm in the Nevada region( USA still continues but just with less earthquakes and lower magnitudes.

Our "El discreto" on the Canaries however  is one of the most quiet and strange  hot spot systems on Earth.  Its seems to react slower or less on solar proton storms than others . But magmatic quakes do not necessarely say anything about the state of a volcano system 
and can`t tell anything at all  about the amount of hot magma that has meanwhile accumulated/ assembled  within the old caldera between the Canary islands. As known from the intensive research in the  Yellowstone caldera , these magmatic quakes just occure within the socalled mantle plume and 3 D evaluation of these quakes only marks the form of the  mantle plume ( that is a funnel formed channel through which magma comes up from the hot spot below)  while the seize or behaviour of the  magma bubble can neither be located not observed by any means. Today`s human tools just don`t reach down into the hot depths of 7 and more kilometers.

So we have to look out and to wait for - and if so- closely to observe any surface activity that might result on any day or might never come,  if the magmatic intrusion really should come to an halt again at any time.  This- in fact-  is not yet the case.


NOVEMBER 01- 2014:

magmatic intrusion indeed increased again after the proton impact from a solar SEP on 20141101. 

 NASA DRAP global map  shows the heat absorption /heat  effects of impacting protons mainly towards and through  the Southern pole on 20141102 :





About 20 geysirs were active at the time of this update  in the upper geysir basin ( old faithful") of the Yellowstone natural park in Wyoming USA. A Lava stream from Kilauea still proceeds into habitated areas on its way to the coast.

A stronger - likely also  magmatic quake occured offshore near the  Madeira islands, which is the central volcanic feature on the Azores  not far North from the Canaries: (depth: 30 km) 


an our discrete Canary hotspot, had two magmatic quakes, the first in a depth of now just 7 km below sea level, Activity can be exspected to rise in the coming days


EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130459302/11/201418:32:0327.7115-18.0204152.0mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130456502/11/201416:57:4627.6941-18.062471.7mbLgW EL PINAR.IHI[+]

Magma intrusion in that intensity is anything els than a daily or usual event. Comparing the depth of  the magmatic intrusion on several hot spots and continental ridges , the suggestion comes up, that there is a global magma  level if then that rises simultanously and  seems now on those places where data are available  to have reached a  depth of around 5 km below sealevel what is already pretty  close to the surface

The magmatic quakes on the  midatlantic ridge ( that also reaches down to the Earth mantle) continued with another M 5.5. in 5 km depth:


M 5.5 - CENTRAL MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE - 2014-11-03 08:23:56 UTC

another l.kikely magmatic activity on the Mid indian ridge was measured in a depth of 10 km:

the 5.4 quake below Iceland, that announces that the activity in the large bardarbunga caldera will also resume resp inmcrease again soon

and the earthquak swarm near  the San Andreas fault ( just another spreading zone along the western coast of the uSA that  reaches down to the earth mantle) shows an increase in magnitude and frequence after the solar SEP on 20141101. The magmatic swarm quakes had increased in January 2014 as well as activity of the Yellowstone caldera - as the USGS confirmed  2014 . the fluctuating quake activity  along the san Andreas fault however   always were coincident  since then with an jncrease of steam emissions in the Yellowstone caldera soon after., which can ba just calm on some days but made 2014 hundredfeet high steam eruptions,

Strongest quake that was registered there today at time of this update:

 : 

M 4.0 - OFF COAST OF OREGON - 2014-11-03 05:54:07 UTC ( depth: 10 km)

So the situation might become more and more harzardous but nobody should really worry on the Canaries. Before any Magma wiould reach the surface for sure warning signs would become visible such as steam emissions such as on the slopes of Teide , The   ground might vibrate a bit or stronger and become warmer .As AVCAN repeats again and again, if  the staff there  would have sure indicators for an upcoming  surface eruption, there would be still enough time to leave or evacuate the island if necessary.


NOVEMBER 01- 2014:


not much was happening during the past 10 days. On November 1st, another solar proton event (SEP occured with first protons impacting into the geomagnetic field after 14 UTC:



This is above the Atlantic and pretty  close to the longitude of the Canaries and Iceland. Indeed magmatic earthquake activity near to this longitude significantly rose on November 2nd with three stronger  earthquakes on the northern Mid Atlantic ridge and a new  increase of the magmatic activity below Iceland which had already  gradually and slowly decreased oner the past 2 weeks :


M 5.3 - NORTHERN MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE - 2014-11-02 09:03:03 UTC



All though the Canary volcano system and hot spot seems to react very  slowly on solar SEPs than most other hotspots ( such as Yellowstone and Hawaii where the activity has again risen significantly after the latest SEPs as on all others before ) the name el Discreto describes it best . Its just not well known but surface volcanic activities remain still a rsik as long as the magma intrusion for the earthmantle continues and doies not really stop at least for some montghs

INCREASE OF MAGMATIC ACTIVITY VERY LIKELY


This solar proton impact however will very likely also lead to an rather slight increase of  activity on the Canary hotspot below El Hierro. Magma however was already pretty close to the surface once this year in June 2014,  when  an isolated event was registered just 5 km below Sea level on the geograophic position of El Teide and interprated even by staff of AVCAN as an rise  or a decline of magma below the volcano ( see earlier reports) , which is with el cumbre vieja on von La Palma the only but largest intact stratovolcano on the islands ( while all others such as La Gomera, Gran Canaria and parts of El Hierro  have already collapsed to a Caldera that poses the lowest volcanic threat of all volcano types.)  


EventoFechaHora(GMT)*Latitud Longitud Prof.
(km)
Int. Máx.Mag.Tipo Mag. (**)LocalizaciónInfo
130362430/10/201419:57:4927.7452-18.1061111.7mbLgW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130310729/10/201411:29:4327.7175-18.0009112.3mbLgNW EL PINAR.IHI[+]
130304329/10/201407:32:1528.2114-16.16691.6mbLgATLÁNTICO-CANARIAS[+]
130250427/10/201410:33:1727.7305-18.0213121.6mbLgSW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130228325/10/201403:38:4827.7889-18.094491.5mbLgNW FRONTERA.IHI[+]
130223924/10/201422:04:3828.0599-16.1572281.9mbLgATLÁNTICO-CANARIAS[+]



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useful links/ nützliche Links:
EMSC
Global Volcanism Program
Facebook Seite der AVCAN
IGN (Spain) Serie El Hierro
Volcano-discovery.com
Earthquake- report. com
MEDIEN:
KARTEN:
SOLAR (SAT)
SOLAR (info)

REAL TIME FEATURES:
(click on the images to enlarge them)

letztes Beben(Kanarische Inseln ( IGN)



Bebenmap( El Hierro)


GPS deformation measure stations on El Hierro

MODVOLC/ Hawaii  thermal alerts:


^
near real time thermal alert
for El Hierro, la Palma, Teneriffe and la Gomera ( updated once per week)

volcano discovery. com : Earthquake within 30 km radius around El Hierro:


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previous posts those contain articles about the Canary volcanism in general: 


February 10- 16- 2014

 January 15- 19- 2014

January 20- 27- 2014




Mnt Teide ( Teneriffe)

related free online sources:


VOLCANOES:

"Eruptions that shook the world"

a very interesting and freely avaible  source how volcanoes work where you find all what you want to know about volcanoes

Sources of the volcanic activity at El Hierro ( since 2011):

Some may like to read a review on the volcanic activity below El Hierro in 2011:
Here is a data based report  by earthquake .com- an excellent site regularly reporting (what you never get in the news) about Earthquakes and related volcanism

worldnews.com: Special environmental reports about the Canaries 

Miscanellous:
 Geschichte Teneriffas (deutsch)





 Fataga ( Gran Canaria)



 San Cristóbal de La Laguna in 1880 (Tenerife)




Caldera de Taburiente National Park (La Palma).




Garajonay (La Gomera)




   (BBC/ 20111204)Canary Island volcano: A new island in the making?

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